ISLAMABAD - Scientists in Pakistan Museum of Natural History(PMNH) are engaged to collect, study, identify, and record the sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks, minerals, vertebrate and invertebrate fossils with objective to represent geological history and natural wealth of Pakistan. These samples have been recorded and placed in the Earth Sciences Division (ESD) at PMNH and are available for the interested researchers.Talking to APP, Director Zoological Department, PMNH, Dr Muhammad Rafique said the geologists of E.S.D conduct advanced and high-level research in collaboration with the foreign scientists from Europe and US and publish their work in the national and international journals. They have published, so far, 300 research papers, abstracts and two books.He said E.S.D helps prepare educational exhibitions, display exhibits, Dioramas etc. for the education of general public, students and teachers, representing natural history of different parts of Pakistan. Dioramas of Salt Range, Ocean, Palaeozoic Mesozoic & Cenozoic Times and evolution of life with respect to geological time are worth visiting for general education, knowledge and pleasure. Besides, the Gem Gallery of PMNH exhibits a variety of gemstones of Pakistan. It also provides useful information pertaining to gemstone industry in Pakistan. The scientists of Earth Sciences Division are currently working to correlate the Eocene rocks from different parts of Punjab and Sindh on the basis of foraminifera and other invertebrate fossils. They have already established the evolutionary trends and migration of small mammals from other continents. The Paleontologists are presently comparing different vertebrate and invertebrate fauna found in the rocks of Potwar Plateau and Sulaiman Range. The geologists of Earth Sciences Division are also investigating the tectonics and other mountain building processes relating to uplifting of Himalayas and Karakoram Ranges and other mountains ranges of Pakistan.Dr.Muhammad Rafique said the scientists of E.S.D have organized several expeditions in the Northern Areas in collaboration with foreign scientists. They have also organized six national and international conferences, workshops and seminars, on different geological topics.Moreover, the geo-scientists of Earth Sciences Division provide guidance and consultancy to the general public and mineral explorers for development of economic mineral resources of the country.