We are at a crossroad of history with a serious threat to our federation. Pakistan was supposed to be a democratic republic with federation as its major shape of government. But things have happened contrary to that during the 61 years of our existence as a nation-state. Factors have contributed for the deterioration of the federation one after the another. The major blow to the federation came in 1971 when our east wing was separated at the cost of the humiliating defeat and surrender of our forces and became Bangladesh. Lessons were not learnt from the tragedy and mistakes were repeated by our rulers. The foundations of the federation have become weaker due to many factors. The major blow to the federation in Pakistan is due to the longer period of martial law with army playing the role of praetorian ruler type role. A federation is a dependent variable with a democratic process as causal variable for its survival and development. When military takes over, the consideration of the representation of masses over the country becomes secondary. No matter, the formative phases of the regime over a year or two might produce good results and appear as a saviour of a doomed society, but indeed the foundations on which a strong federation can be built are directly and indirectly undermined. The beauty and integration of the federation is a constitutional set-up with sheer division of powers, largely political, economic, financial between centre and federating units. Political history of the nations faced with praetorian rules is witness to fact that constitutional set-up was put in abeyance, dissolved or tampered to the needs of the rulers. The abeyance of constitution directly affects the units with still discontent with the division but united by the representative process with provincial assemblies and elected CM's. The longer is the period of military rule the higher are the stakes of policy making as the legislative system providing feedback to the policy makers is absent. There is neither a debate inside and outside Assemblies nor a check on policy makers. Pakistan could continue as a strong nation-state in the spirit of federation. It was a dream that unfortunately seems to have gone sour.