In my first column on this complex subject, I had not mentioned the names of those tribal chiefs who belonged to Punjab and Sindh. Punjabs regions of Dera Ghazi Khan is the second house of Leghari Sardars. Elders of Sardar Farooq Legahri, who also ruled portions of Sindh including, Chandka, the old name of Larkana and Khosas of DG Khan hail from Balochistan. There are more Balochs living in Punjab and Sindh than Balochisatan itself. Jatois and Zardaris of Sindh, Mazaris, Qasranis, Lasharis of Sindh and Punjab and Rinds of Sindh have their strong roots and influence in Balochistan. Sardar Zulfikar Khosa, an important member of the Pakistan Muslim League (N), hails from Naseerabad of Balochistan. He is highly respected tribal chief in Balochistan. Another Pashtoon tribal chief from the PML-N is Sardar Yaqub Nasir who is rich coal miner from Loralai of the Pashtun belt of Balochistan. Chief of Jhalwan, Mir Sanaullah Zeheri, and his brother Mir Israr Zehri (lately federal minister for post) are sons of famous Sardar Doda Khan Zarakzai .They command a big number of tribesmen in Khuzdar. Balochistan has an interesting and fascinating history. Colonel Sir Robert Sandeman who authored Imperial Gazeteers Conquered Balochisatn spent 23 years of his life in Balochistan. He left a 3-year old daughter in London for his conquest of Balochistan. When he returned to meet his family after 23 years, his daughter, 26, refused to meet him. Sandeman is also known as peaceful conqueror. Colonel Sir Robert Sandeman returned to Balochistan and his last appointment was Agent to Governor General of India. Colonel was buried at Bela, former Capital of Lasbela State of Balochistan. Sir Robert Groves Sandeman (18351892), Colonial British Indian officer and administrator, was the son of General Turnbull Sandeman. Born on the February 25, 1835, he was educated at University of St. Andrews. He joined the 33rd Bengal Infantry in 1856. When that regiment was disarmed by General Sir John Nicholson General during the 1857s Indian revolt, he took part in the final capture of literary city of Lucknow as adjutant of the IIth Bengal Lancers. After the suppression of the mutiny, he was appointed to the Punjab commission by Sir John Lawrence for whom the Lahores Lawrence garden is famous for. Sandeman was appointed Deputy Commissioner Dera Ghazi Khan in 1866. Here, he showed his capacity of dealing with the Baloch tribes. He was the first to break through the close-border system of Lord Lawrence by extending British influence to the independent tribes beyond the border. In his hands this policy worked admirably, owing to his tact in managing the tribesmen and his genius for control. In February 1871, he was given the political control over the warring Marri, Bugti and Mazari tribes of Sulaiman Hills at Mithankot. In 1876, he negotiated the treaty with the Khan of Kalat which subsequently governed the relations between Kalat and the Government of India. In 1877, he was made agent to the Governor General in Balochistan and he held this office till his death. During the second Afghan war in 1878, his influence over the tribesmen was of the utmost importance, since it enabled him to keep intact the line of communications with Kandhar and to control the tribes after the British disaster at Afghan region of Maiwand. For these services, he was made K.C.S.I. in 1879. In 1889, he occupied the Suleman range that embraced Zhob Valley, a strategic advantage which opened the Gomal Pass through the Waziri country to caravan traffic. Sandemans system was not so well suited to the Pashtuns, mainly Mandokhails and Jogezais as to his Baloch neighbour. But in Balochistan he was a pioneer, a pacificator and a successful administrator, who converted that country from a state of complete anarchy into a province as orderly as any in British India. Recent scholarship in postcolonial studies and on colonial Balochistan has disputed this overtly laudatory account of Sandemans life and career as explicated in books such as Tuckers Sir Robert G. Sandeman: Peaceful Conqueror of Baluchistan and Bruces The Forward Policy and its Results. At a conceptual level, the idea of colonial rulers bringing order to the colonised territory has been questioned by authors such as Edward Said and Nicholas Dirks who argue that this myth resulted from a misunderstanding of (mostly unwritten) local, social and cultural norms. It was the product of an effort to make alien peoples and territories governable through the invention of categories of the savage and the civilised. In respect of colonial Balochistan, Simanti Dutta points out that Sandeman skillfully exploited an existing rift between the Baloch ruler, the Khan of Kalat, and his subordinate tribal chiefs to leverage his influence and project British power into a region which was strategically significant in the context of Anglo-Russian rivalry in Afghanistan. A careful examination of historical records suggests that there were a number of armed uprisings against British rule in Balochistan during and after Sandemans tenure which had to be put down through the use of lethal force and imposition of crippling financial penalties on the defaulting tribes. Sir John Jacob and Sir Charles Napier moved into Balochistan from South and South West whereas Colonel Sandeman a frontal attack through Dera Ghazi Khan slicing Barkhan, Kohlu and Sibbi regions. A towering leader from the All India Muslim League was Sardar Abdul Rab Nishter. Nishtar, a Kakar Pashtoon from Balochistan, influenced House of Mir Mehrab Bugti, knighted by the Brits, father of Nawab Akbar Bugti, Qazi Issa of Pishin to vote for Pakistan at the time of partition of Indian sub-continent. At that time there were princely states in Balochistan including Mekran, Kalat, Kharan and Lasbela. Khan of Kalat, Ahmad Yar Khan, not only voted for Pakistan but on an important occasion he weighed Quaid-e-Azam on gold made strong pledges for the development of Pakistan. There was no tribal chief in Mekran belt which is currently restive. (To be continued)