Climate change is the gravest of all challenges facing the world today. Its costs are incalculable and damage irreparable.

It has gripped the whole world and wreaked havoc all over the world. The reality is that climate change is costing lives and it is a humanitarian crisis as well as an environmental one. The menace of climate change has been triggered by many factors such as excessive greenhouse gas emissions, enormous use of non-renewable energy sources, deforestation and other anthropogenic activities. Ostensibly, thanks to these factors, the earth gets warmer which leads to changes in climate patterns.

The intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), the leading body of the United Nations for the assessment of climate change has proved some scientific evidence for the warming of the climate. Unequivocally, scientists, climate experts and authorities of the world have observed the changing patterns of rainfall, floods and temperature rising are some indicators of climate change.

Over several decades the scientists have sounded the alarm about this global problem they have come together to show a pattern that the current atmospheric warming driven by human activities, has the potential to change in ways that could profoundly affect human livelihood in many parts of the world.

However, the process of the industrial revolution in the 18th century and the phenomena of decolonisation spewed an alarming rate of carbon emissions. The global emissions rate keeps worsening over time. In addition, colonialism has also greatly influenced the shape of prevalent economic systems, which have enabled vast accumulation via the ruthless exploitation of people and our planet. Some prominent scientists and climate experts have warned if the global temperature continues to rise at the current pace it should have catastrophic consequences.

Most importantly, deforestation is warmly welcome to global warming and has profoundly exacerbated green energy and climate change. Therefore, the effects are significant and include melting polar ice, rising sea levels and severe storms, droughts and flooding.

International cooperation and coordination is prerequisite to significantly mitigate the impact of climate change and could bring unprecedented changes in the pattern of the climate system. First of all the large dynamic emerging economies- China, India, Brazil and Indonesia have assured leadership, offering contributions of their own and prodding other industrial countries to take their actions. Moreover, all the largely emitters must make their contribution to galvanize the technological revolution. They would take early actions to eliminate fossil fuels, subsidies commit to matching carbon price increases in the future, and strengthen the protection of intellectual property for green technology.

Now, China is the leading country in carbon emissions, for instance, it plans to spend $780 billion on renewable energy by 2030. Similarly, Saudi Arabia, one of the leading countries in the production of fossil fuels, intends to invest $50 billion in its renewable energy sector.