Black money refers to funds that are earned through illegal or unethical means and are not disclosed for tax purposes or are hidden from the government authorities. It is commonly associated with activities such as tax evasion, corruption, money laundering, and illicit trade. The sources of black money can vary across different countries and regions.
Individuals and businesses may evade taxes by underreporting income, inflating expenses, or using offshore tax havens to hide their assets and income. Bribery and embezzlement of public funds by authorities and politicians contribute to the generation of black money. Smuggling and Illegal Trade, Activities such as smuggling of goods, narcotics, arms, and wildlife products can generate significant amounts of black money. Unreported cash transactions, informal or unregistered businesses, and unaccounted income from various sources contribute to the generation of black money.
Illegal proceeds from criminal activities are often laundered through complex financial transactions to make them appear legitimate. Accountability for black money involves measures to track, identify, and penalize individuals and entities involved in its generation, transfer, and concealment. Governments and international organizations have implemented several strategies to tackle black money.
Governments enhance their tax administration systems to detect and deter tax evasion. This includes implementing stricter reporting requirements, conducting audits, and using data analytics to identify suspicious transactions. Countries collaborate through information-sharing agreements to combat cross-border tax evasion and money laundering. Initiatives like the Common Reporting Standard (CRS).
Governments enact and enforce laws to prevent money laundering, such as Know Your Customer regulations, suspicious transaction reporting, and monitoring of financial transactions Enhanced Penalties and Enforcement: Governments impose severe penalties and sanctions on individuals and entities involved in black money activities. This serves as a deterrent and encourages compliance with tax and financial regulations.
Demonetisation and Cashless Economy: Some countries have undertaken demonetization exercises to curb black money by invalidating high-denomination currency notes. Promoting digital transactions and a cashless economy can also help reduce unaccounted cash transactions.
Strengthening Financial Intelligence Units, Governments establish specialized units to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on suspicious financial transactions, aiding in the detection and investigation of black money-related activities. It's important to note that the effectiveness of these measures can vary depending on the legal framework, enforcement capabilities, and cooperation among countries.