IUCN releases list of threatened species

KARACHI- IUCN has released a Red List of Threatened Species, which is assessed to be under threat so far. It includes 21 percent of all known mammals, 30 percent of all known amphibians, 12 percent of all known birds, 28 percent of reptiles, 37 percent of freshwater fishes, 70 percent of plants, 35 percent of invertebrates. Out of the worlds 5,490 mammals, 79 are extinct or extinct in the wild, with 188 critically endangered, 449 endangered and 505 vulnerable. The Eastern Voalavo appears on the IUCN Red List for the first time in the endangered category. This rodent, endemic to Madagascar, is confined to montane tropical forest and is under threat from slash-and-burn farming. There are now 1,677 reptiles on the IUCN Red List, with 293 added this year. In total, 469 are threatened with extinction while 22 are already extinct or extinct in the wild. The 165 endemic Philippine species new to the IUCN Red List include the Panay Monitor Lizard, which is endangered. This highly specialised monitor lizard is threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and logging and is hunted by humans for food. The Sail-fin Water Lizard enters in the vulnerable category and is also threatened by habitat loss. Hatchlings are heavily collected both for the pet trade and for local consumption. The IUCN Red List shows that 1,895 of the planets 6,285 amphibians are in danger of extinction, making them the most threatened group of species known to date. Of these, 39 are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered and 657 are vulnerable. The Kihansi Spray Toad has moved from critically endangered to extinct in the wild. The species was only known from the Kihansi Falls in Tanzania, where it was formerly abundant with a population of at least 17,000. Its decline is due to the construction of a dam upstream of the Kihansi Falls that removed 90 percent of the original water flow to the gorge. The fungus also affected the Rabbs Fringe-limbed Treefrog, which enters the Red List as critically endangered. It is known only from central Panama. In 2006, the chytrid fungus was reported in its habitat and only a single male has been heard calling since. This species has been collected for captive breeding efforts but all attempts have so far failed. Of the 12,151 plants on the IUCN Red List, 8,500 are threatened with extinction, with 114 already extinct or extinct in the wild. The Queen of the Andes has been reassessed and remains in the endangered category. Found in the Andes of Peru and Bolivia, it only produces seeds once in 80 years before dying. Climate change may already be impairing its ability to flower and cattle roam freely among many colonies, trampling or eating young plants. There are now 7,615 invertebrates on the IUCN Red List this year, 2,639 of which are threatened with extinction. Scientists added 1,360 dragonflies and damselflies, bringing the total to 1,989, of which 261 may fall a victim to extinction. The Giant Jewel, classed as Vulnerable, is found in southeast Nigeria and southwest Cameroon and is threatened by forest destruction. Scientists also added 94 molluscs, bringing the total number assessed to 2,306, of which 1,036 are threatened. All seven freshwater snails from Lake Dianchi in Yunnan Province, China, are new to the IUCN Red List and all are threatened. These join 13 freshwater fishes from the same area, 12 of which are threatened. The main threats are pollution, introduced fish species and over-harvesting. There are now 3,120 freshwater fishes on the IUCN Red List, up 510 species from last year. Although there is still a long way to go before the status all the worlds freshwater fishes is known, 1,147 of those assessed so far are threatened with extinction. The Brown Mudfish, found only in New Zealand, has been moved from Near Threatened to Vulnerable as it has disappeared from many areas in its range. Approximately 85-90 percent of New Zealands wetlands have been lost or degraded through drainage schemes, irrigation and land development. The status of the Australian Grayling, a freshwater fish, has improved as a result of conservation efforts.