Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the largest infectious killer diseases affecting adults in developing countries like Pakistan. Global control of tuberculosis is hampered by slow, insensitive diagnostic methods. Early detection is essential to reduce the death rate and interrupt transmission. The World Health Organisation has recently endorsed the Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay for National Tuberculosis Control Program in developing countries like Pakistan for rapid detection of smear-negative and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Sputum samples were obtained from different suspected patients of tuberculosis and the samples were analyzed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under different laboratory techniques e.g, Gram stain, LJ culture and Gene Xpert MTB/RIF. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques were checked and analyzed. Results from these techniques show that Gene Xpert MTB/RIF has more sensitivity and specificity than Gram stain and LJ culture. It is the most rapid and sensitive test as it saves time for the detection of tuberculosis which leads to the effective treatment of tuberculosis patients. Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay has shown to have good potential as an alternative to current reference standard sputum microscopy and culture.