Nutrient deficiencies remain a significant global health concern, with approximately 30% of the world population experiencing at least one or two deficiencies. This issue is particularly pronounced in developing countries, where access to nutritious food and beverages is often limited. Pakistan is also one of the regions where malnutrition is one of the most pressing challenges being faced by its population. It not only poses a threat to public health but also affects national productivity as a whole.
In Pakistan, many individuals and families struggle to obtain a diverse range of foods that provide essential nutrients, and the lack of its access is often linked to poverty, inadequate infrastructure, and a lack of awareness about proper nutrition. As a result, a significant portion of the population, especially children and women, suffer from nutrient deficiencies such as Vitamin A, Iron, Iodine, and Zinc.
One of the most prevalent forms of malnutrition in Pakistan revolves around Iron Deficiency, whose effects extend beyond physical health. The gravity of the situation can be realized by looking at the startling statistics shared by School Age Children Health and Nutrition Survey (SCANS) 2020, which reveal that over 90% of children have inadequate iron intake in their diet. As a result, these children have been suffering from impaired growth, frequent illness, fatigue, shortness of breath and reduced cognitive abilities. And this isn’t the only harsh reality. The repercussions extend beyond immediate health concerns, as the lack of proper nutrition often leads to absenteeism from schools, hindering both physical and cognitive development and impeding children's progress towards a successful future.
Iron deficiency weakens the immune system, making children more susceptible to frequent illnesses and infections. Moreover, without adequate iron levels, the body cannot produce sufficient hemoglobin, leading to fatigue and reduced stamina. As a result, children may find it challenging to engage in physical activities or concentrate on their studies due to constant tiredness. Furthermore, the deficiency of iron also affects brain function. Needless to say, the combination of poor growth and increased vulnerability to illnesses creates a vicious cycle that impedes children's ability to reach their full potential.
In order to address the issue of iron deficiency and malnutrition, it is imperative that individuals have access to good source of iron in their diet. Foods such as organic meat, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes and fortified grains are rich in iron and should be included in their meal in order to increase the iron intake. Additionally, the consumption of iron-fortified products can significantly contribute to meeting the iron requirement of growing children.
While tackling the problem of malnutrition in children, promoting nutritional solutions to ensure adequate nutrient intake by them is crucial. Among the various approaches to prevent the risk of malnutrition, food fortification stands out as a sustainable and long-term solution that is relatively easy to implement. It involves the addition of essential nutrients to commonly consumed food, thereby enhancing their nutritional content without significantly altering taste or texture.
Fortified dairy products, such as milk and yogurt and other nutrition solutions, such as complementary foods for early childhood, have proven to be effective vehicles for fortification. These products not only improve the nutritional quality of diet but also support normal healthy growth and development in children. By making these options readily available and accessible, a significant impact can be made on reducing iron deficiency and malnutrition in the society.
The research community worldwide is actively engaged in finding innovative ways to enhance the nutritional value of food and food ingredients. In this pursuit, Massey University in New Zealand has made a groundbreaking discovery in the field of iron supplements. They have developed a new and improved iron source known as Iron+. This innovative iron source offers three times more absorption in the body compared to the existing best available source of iron, bridging the nutrient gap and ensuring that children receive the necessary iron for optimal growth and development. This breakthrough has the potential to transform the landscape of nutritional interventions and significantly improve the health outcomes of children at risk of malnutrition.
Speaking about addressing malnutrition in Pakistan, it requires a multifaceted approach that encompasses various sectors and stakeholders. Efforts should focus on improving the availability and affordability of nutritious food options, especially for vulnerable populations. This includes promoting sustainable agricultural practices, strengthening food distribution networks and implementing social protection programs that target the most affected communities.
Additionally, nutrition education programs should be expanded to raise awareness about the importance of a balanced diet and optimal nutrition during critical life stages. It needs to be realized that it’s about time that the governing bodies and key stakeholders in Pakistan should collaborate to prioritize and implement comprehensive strategies to address iron deficiency and malnutrition issues. By investing in nutrition interventions and policies, Pakistan can improve the health and well-being of its population, breaking the cycle of poverty and malnutrition, and foster sustainable development for the entire nation.